Friday, May 22, 2020

The Punishment Mechanisms Of Probation And Parole Essay

The punishment mechanisms of probation and parole developed from different social circumstances, which were driven by the need for alternative means to imprisonment. The creation of the mechanisms for probation can be linked to the moral panic caused by the excess consumption of alcohol and the increased amount of alcohol-related offences. In contrast, the development of parole was the result of the systems at the time, failing to deliver the expected results. This essay will outline the different origins of probation and parole, and discuss how the original purposes have evolved to accommodate the constant change in the criminal justice system. Probation is an alternative to the traditional forms of punishment that a court can impose, and is influenced by the background of the offender (Klingele 2013,1022). It will include the offender being released on certain conditions, in which they will need to comply. The origin of probation can be traced back to the actions of Matthew Davenport Hill, Frederick Rainer, and John Augustus. Although their contributions are similar, each contribution was significant in creating the basis for probation. In Britain, the first documented development of probation occurred from the actions of the Warwickshire magistrate. The Warwickshire magistrate enacted legislation in the 1820’s that allowed for certain minors to be released to a guardian as an alternative means to imprisonment (Harris 2005, 32; Vanstone 2004, 35). However, it was theShow MoreRelatedA Summary On Collective Corrections 1530 Words   |  7 Pagesin conduct that is considered wrong occurs in various forms. They vary from incarcerations, fines, corporal punishment as in the case of Sharia laws while others hope that fate or karma will even out the score. Whichever method is used it is hoped that a punishment will be meted. In traditional systems in the United States of America dealt with incarceration as its main form of punishment or offenders. However, statistics in the recent times have indicated that most convicts offend and get backRead MoreThe Factual United States Criminal Justice System1434 Words   |  6 Pagescompared to the six percent stating it is too tough. Individuals within the sixty five percent were found to believe too many criminals go free on technicalities, too many appeals are allowed, most convicted criminals are not given severe enough punishment, and lawyers tend to spend too much time finding technicalities to get criminals released. Contrary to these many popular beliefs which are falsehoods given to society , the criminal justice system proves to be the opposite. Many times, theRead MoreThe Harshness Of The United States Criminal Justice System1567 Words   |  7 Pagespercent stating it is too tough† (Newport, 2014). Individuals within the sixty five percent were found to believe too many criminals go free on technicalities, too many appeals are allowed, most convicted criminals are not given severe enough punishment, and lawyers tend to spend too much time finding technicalities to get criminals released (Newport, 2014). Contrary to these many popular beliefs which are falsehoods given to society , the criminal justice system proves to be the opposite. Read MoreThe Incarceration Of The Correctional System910 Words   |  4 Pagesthe management, supervision, and rehabilitation of convicted offenders. These mandates are often carried out through incarceration, probation, or parole, while prisons are the most popular correctional agency in America. Prisons in America were among some of the first public buildings established in the New World. Early prisons were not considered â€Å"houses of punishment,† but were rather referred to as temporary holding cells. The history of U.S. prisons from the late 1700s to the late 1800s was markedRead MoreRape And Burglary As A Post Incarceration Supervision1730 Words   |  7 Pagesand burglary as strikes for purposes of imposing a life sentence without parole (Sutton, 2013). Mandatory minimums take away the discretion of the judge in sentencing. These officials are bound by statute to place offenders behind bars. Because these statutes are put into place, the judge is not allowed to hand down alternative punishments, nor do they give them the opportunity to prescribe treatment or a change to rehabilitate. Such laws also hold racial discriminatory factors (USSC, 2011). DeterminateRead MoreThe Goals Of Criminal Sanction1253 Words   |  6 PagesThe four main goals of the criminal sanction in the United States are retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. Carried out through incarceration, intermediate sanctions, probation, and death are goals of the criminal sanction. Penal codes differ if the permitted sentences are indeterminate, determinate, or mandatory. Each sentence has an assumption about the criminal sanction. Judges consider discretion in fashioning sentences for factors of the crime, the offenders aggravatingRead MoreOperant Conditioning in the Criminal Ju Essay2660 Words   |  11 Pagesthe use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response (McLeod S. A., 2007). There are four different contexts or types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive (or response-cost) punishment, and negative punishment. The last three of these are all associated with aversive control wh ile only one, positive reinforcement, is associated with positive control. Thus, researchers can distinguish between two variations of the model, a positive one andRead MoreThe Sentencing Practices And Probation System2329 Words   |  10 Pages The Sentencing Practices and Probation From my standpoint, sentencing laws and the probation system are issues society struggle with today. The government usually lacks on amount of time and funds towards incarcerate criminals. The unintended of parole is multifaceted than ever. Situations like this concentrate on offenders focusing on lack of dissuasion. Viewing on a positive note this is more of a motivational approach where it’s enabling rehabilitation completely to parolees. Society facesRead MoreThe Punishment Of Prison System825 Words   |  4 Pagesthe citizenry. Initially, prisons were designed as penitent- punitive in nature. This approach aims at issuing punishment to offenders or seeks retribution from those who are involved in serious crime. It involved incarceration and flogging offenders as a way of suppressing unwanted behavior (Morris and Tonry 79). This is meant to reform minds of the offender through inflicting punishment and scare potential criminals from committing crime. However, this approach may fail to achieve its objectiveRead MoreRisk And Governmentality By Michel Foucault1151 Words   |  5 Pagesrates of parolees being returned to prison once indicated program failure, now they are offered as evidence of efficiency and effectiveness of parole as a control mechanism. Besides this, parole and probation are increasingly being perceived as cost-effective ways of imposing long-term management on individuals at risk, whereas for a long time parole and probation have been justified as means of reintegrating the offender into th e community. This new discourse manifests itself also in to development of

Saturday, May 9, 2020

American History And The Colonization Of North America By...

Americans are taught one narrative of the colonization of North America; it is the European or white man’s version of events. Children all over the United States see pictures of Indians barely wearing clothes and wearing headdresses covered in feathers and larger than the very heads they sit on. Though, this narrative is not contained to inaccurate history books it is represented in books, movies even advertisements. Time and time again Indians are portrayed as savages who lack morals and are devoid of humanity. Recently author Daniel K. Richter has asked us to â€Å"Face East† to not only get a better understanding of American history but also to better understand the Indians and what happened to them.1 â€Å"Facing East† means to look at the same stories but from the perspective of the Native Americans. Perhaps, this is not as easy as it sounds as only Europeans had a system for writing down events; Indians told stories, one generation to the next and as the tribes were slowly eradicated they took the stories to the grave. There are, however, a small number of surviving Indians who were able to translate a few stories. When â€Å"Facing East† perhaps its best to start at the beginning, the first meetings between the Europeans and the Native Americans. There have been two very different narratives of the beginning of the relationship between the two. First, there is the account of the Pilgrims at Plymouth; they celebrated with the Indians who taught them how to survive. The

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Law in the Modern Times Free Essays

Dietrich v The Queen Argued that there Is Immunity from conviction unless such a person In provided with counsel at the public expense. Mason C. J. We will write a custom essay sample on Law in the Modern Times or any similar topic only for you Order Now And Brenan J. â€Å"The applicant is entitled to succeed because his trial miscarried by virtue of the judge’s failure to stay or adjourn the trial until arrangements were made for counsel to appear the public expenseÃ'›. He was deprived of his right to a fair trial. † â€Å"Indeed, where there is no legal representation, and save in the exceptional case of the skilled litigant, the adversary system, whether or not It remains in theory, in racist breaks down † – Lord Devil. There Is an argued analogy with the united States Constitution, however as It Is based on their Constitution It has no parallel In Australian law. Could create difficulties – egg. Accused could demand counsel of a particular degree, skill or experience. Lack of representation may mean that an accused is unable to receive, or not receive a far trial. Brenna J. Whilst dissenting, Brenna acknowledges: â€Å"The entitlement of a person charged with a serious offence to be represented by counsel at public expense would be an important safeguard of fairness in the administration of criminal justice. Argues that our common law is different to other common law countries that have a Bill of Rights. â€Å"In the present case, there is no constitutional or statutory provision which supports the applicant’s case. † â€Å"Every right or title must be enforced or administered in some form. † Deane J. â€Å"The entitlement of an accused person to a fair trial according to law Is recognized as the central thesis of the administration of criminal justice. † and right’ which subjects innocent men t increased dangers of conviction merely cause of their poverty. However, viewed in the context of the overall trial, impropriety or unfairness could not have infected the verdict in the sense that it could not have adversely influenced the final verdict which the accused was convicted. † Dawson J. The Trial Judge addressing Jury â€Å"The fact is he unrepresented, and you should make whatever allowances you believe appropriate for that fact. †  "Entitlement to appear by counsel is not the same thing as entitlement to have counsel at the public expense. † â€Å"If he is convicted, an appeal cannot succeed merely because he was at a equidistant in being unrepresented. â€Å"There cannot be a miscarriage of Justice merely because an accused in unrepresented when he has no entitlement to representation. † Dietrich relied on Article 14(3)(d) of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: â€Å"To have legal assistance assigned to him, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it. † However Dawson J. Believes that the common law can hold a fair trial with an unrepresented accused. Robinson v The Queen Man accused and convicted of murder in Jamaica Minority Judges dissented – found that accused had no defense counsel and a denial of such a right was sufficient to impair the trial. The UN Human Rights Committee responded to the trial of Robinson by stating that â€Å"the absence of counsel constituted an unfair trial. † In the common law country of Canada, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms holds that in serious offences, counsel is essential for a fair trial. Deane J. â€Å"Central of our criminal law†¦ That no person shall be convicted of crime otherwise than after a fair trial according to law. † Gaudier J. A trial is not necessarily unfair because it is less than perfect, but it is unfair if it involves a risk of the accused being improperly convicted. † â€Å"What makes a trial without representation unfair is the possibility that representation might affect the outcome of the case. † Miscarriage of Justice. Mason C. J. â€Å"By reason of the lack of representation of the accused, the resulting trial is not a fair one, any conviction of the accused must be quashed by an appellate court for the reason that there has been a miscarriage of Justice in that the accused as not been convicted without a fair trial. Where an accused has no representation, proceedings should be adjourned to enable accused to find counsel. Paragraph issue? If the trial proceeds without a defense counsel, and the accused is convicted, the conviction will almost certainly be quashed. The notion that a trial Judge may be able to give helping hand to accused is illusory and bound to cause problems in course of trial. No Judges prepared to fashion a constitutional right to state-funded counsel. Murphy J. Is McGinnis: â€Å"Putting aside an accused to trial in a serious case is barbarous. How to cite Law in the Modern Times, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Individual Prejudice and Discrimination Soc/120 Essay Example

Individual Prejudice and Discrimination Soc/120 Essay The culture of South Africa is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity. The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural populations who lead largely impoverished lives. It is among these people, however, that cultural traditions survive most strongly. African Americans are increasingly taking on urban characteristics and have been influenced with ideas; the aspects of traditional culture have declined. Urban blacks usually speak English or Afrikaans in addition to their native tongue. Indian South Africans preserve their cultural heritage, languages and religious beliefs, being either Christian, Hindu or Muslim and speaking English, with Indian languages like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil or Gujarati being spoken less frequently as second languages. There is a much smaller Chinese South African community, made up of early immigrants, apartheid-era immigrants from Taiwan, and post-apartheid immigrants from mainland China. In general, all racial and ethnic groups in South Africa have long-standing beliefs concerning gender roles, and most are based on the premise that women are less important, or less deserving of power, than men. Most African traditional social organizations are male centered and male dominated. Even in the 1990s, in some rural areas of South Africa, for example, wives walk a few paces behind their husbands in keeping with traditional practices. A minority of ultra-conservative Afrikaners’ religious beliefs, too, includes a strong emphasis on the theoretically biblically based notion that womens contributions to society should normally be approved by, or be on behalf of, men. English speaking whites tend to be the most liberal group, including on issues pertaining to gender roles. We will write a custom essay sample on Individual Prejudice and Discrimination Soc/120 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Individual Prejudice and Discrimination Soc/120 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Individual Prejudice and Discrimination Soc/120 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In the 20th century, economic and political developments presented South African women with both new obstacles and new opportunities to wield influence. For example, labor force requirements in cities and mining areas have often drawn men away from their homes for months at a time, and, as a result, women have borne many traditionally male responsibilities in the village and home. Women have had to guarantee the day-to-day survival of their families and to carry out financial and legal transactions that otherwise would have been reserved for men (material Culture of South Africa, 2013). Race and ethnicity are terms used to categorize populations on the basis of shared characteristics. The differentiation between race and ethnicity is an ethnic group is a social category of people who share a common culture, such as a common language, a common religion, or common norms, customs, practices, and history. Ethnic groups have a consciousness of their common cultural bond. An ethnic group does not exist simply because of the common national or cultural origins of the group, however. They develop because of their unique historical and social experiences, which become the basis for the group’s ethnic identity. A race is a group that is treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics. Because of their biological or cultural characteristics, which are labeled as inferior by powerful groups in society, a race is often singled out for differential and unfair treatment. It is not the biological characteristics that define racial groups, but how groups have been treated historically and socially. Society assigns people to racial categories (White, Black, etc. ) not because of science or fact, but because of opinion and social experience. In other words, how racial groups are defined is a social process; it is socially constructed. The assumption that race reflects only biological distinctions is inaccurate. Categories based on race account for only 3–7% of total human genetic diversity, are not reliably measured, and are not always biologically meaningful. Furthermore, both race and ethnicity are constantly evolving concepts, making the task of comparing groups or following the same group over time quite challenging. For instance, the increasing proportion of the U. S. population describing their race as â€Å"mixed† or â€Å"other,† as well as changes in ethnic self-identification across generations and occasionally even within the same generation, makes it difficult to assign individuals to invariant categories of race or ethnicity. Nevertheless, the social importance given to these constructs to describe groups that have been treated in similar ways based on presumed biological characteristics, as well as the acknowledgment that such classifications themselves have contributed to inequalities in health and health care access, necessitates that we continue to use the terms race and ethnicity (material Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 2013). The experiences of African American descendants throughout United States history have been difficult. African American descendants have been subjected to American slavery from the earliest days in the 17th century. Slave owners strove to exercise control over their slaves by making an attempt to strip them of their African culture. Regardless of their fathers status, children of enslaved mothers followed the status of their mothers and were considered slaves as well. The physical isolation and societal downgrading of African slaves facilitated the withholding of significant elements of traditional culture among Africans in the U. S. African American descendants have endured racial terrorism in many forms. One of the forms was the Ku Klux Klan, after its founding in 1867, the Ku Klux Klan, a secret vigilante organization dedicated to destroying the Republican Party in the South, especially by terrorizing Black leaders was formed. This vigilante organization hides behind masks and robes to conceal their identity while they carried out violence and property damage. The Klan used terrorism, especially murder and threats of murder, arson and intimidation. The Klans excesses led to the passage of legislation against it, and with Federal enforcement, it was destroyed by 1871 (material African-American History, 2013). African American descendants have been deprived of their civil rights and have been discriminated against as well. They have been stripped of their rights to vote and racial segregation at the workplace, in schools and by facilities that served the general public where enforced upon them. Anti-miscegenation laws prohibited marriages of European-Americans with people of African descent, even if of mixed race. African American communities have suffered from extremely high incarceration rates. They have the highest imprisonment rate of any major ethnic group in the world. The southern states, which historically had been involved in slavery and post-Reconstruction oppression, now produce the highest rates of incarceration and the death penalty (material African-American History, 2013). Residential segregation has taken various forms. Limited contracts in deeds had prohibited minorities from buying properties from any consequent owner. Some of the state constitutions, had sections giving local authorities the right to control where members of particular races could live. In the 1950s-1960s, legislation enacting racial segregation was finally overturned, because of the population being morally confronted and educated by advocates of the Civil Rights Movement. The United States Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal was essentially discriminatory and engaged integration of public schools in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education (material Judicial Aspects of Race in the United States, 2013). One of many significant pieces of civil rights legislation ever proposed that Congress passed is referred to as the civil rights act of 1964. The civil rights act made Congress an equal partner with the Supreme Court in establishing civil rights. The act banned discrimination in all residences of public lodging, such as restaurants, hotels, gas stations, theaters etc. ,. It also permitted the department of justice to bring suit in order to accomplish desegregation in public schools. In the mid-1950s to late 1960s during the civil rights movement it was a exertion for African Americans to succeed in having civil rights equal to those of Whites, including the opportunity for equal employment, housing, and education, along with the right to vote, the right of equal access to public amenities, and the right to be free of racial discrimination. The movement of the twentieth century has had such an intense effect on the legal and political establishments of the United States that no other social or political effect has had. Assured by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments this movement attempted to restore to African Americans the rights of residency, which had been abused by segregationist Jim Crow laws in the South (material Judicial Aspects of Race in the United States, 2013). The federal government was forced numerous times to enforce its laws and protect the rights of African American citizens which essentially altered relations between the federal government and the states. The civil rights movement also provoked the relapse of the judiciary, including the Supreme Court, in its role as defender of individual liberties against majority power. Furthermore, Martin Luther King Jr. , and other leaders of the movement anticipated, this movement to encouraged advantages not only for African Americans but also for women, individuals with disabilities, and several others. Congress passed another significant piece of legislation; the voting rights act of 1965 was passed the following year. This act excluded the voting qualifications, including literacy tests, that whites have used in the past to prevent African Americans from voting. It also enabled the federal government to oversee rules regarding changes in state voting laws. These laws together with federal actions displayed that no amount of resistance, no matter how violent, by white southerners would encumber the cause and the civil rights movement had the back-up of the powers of the federal government. The culture of South Africa is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity. Both race and ethnicity are, in fact, social constructs. Race has traditionally been used to categorize populations on the basis of shared biological characteristics such as genes, skin color, and other observable features. Ethnicity is used to categorize on the basis of cultural characteristics such as shared language, ancestry, religious traditions, dietary preferences, and history. Although ethnic groups can share a range of phenotypic characteristics due to their shared ancestry, the term is typically used to highlight cultural and social characteristics instead of biological ones. The experiences of African American descendants throughout United States history have been difficult. The federal government was forced numerous times to enforce its laws and protect the rights of African American citizens which essentially altered relations between the federal government and the states. The effects of prejudice and discrimination for South African individuals have been devastating and will continue to have a negative impact for many years to come. Reference Frenkel, R. (2008). Feminism and Contemporary Culture in South Africa. , (). Adams, B. G. , Fons J. R. , Van d. Vijvera. De Bruin, G. P. (2011). . Identity in South Africa: Examining self-descriptions across ethnic groups, (). Culture of South Africa. (2013). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Culture_of_South_Africa African-American history. (2013). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Black_American_History Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. (2013). Retrieved from http://sociology. about. com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity. htm? p=1 Judicial aspects of race in the United States. (2013). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Judicial_aspects_of_race_in_the_United_States

Friday, March 20, 2020

Birlings attitudes Essays

Birlings attitudes Essays Birlings attitudes Essay Birlings attitudes Essay The Inspectors whole approach to the investigation is totally unorthodox; he investigates each character one at a time and more or less in chronological order of what happened to the girl, whereas a normal investigation would work backwards from the events that took place immediately before the girls suicide. The way he treats the other characters is interesting as well, he isnt afraid to contradict or be rude to them even though they are his social superiors. He asks blunt and directly to the point questions and doesnt hesitate to interrupt or challenge what the Birlings and Gerald are saying, Gerald: I dont see why-  Inspector: (cutting in massively) You herd what I said before, Mr Croft. One line of inquiry at a time. Otherwise well all be talking at once and wont know where we are. If youve anything to tell me, youll have the opportunity of doing it soon.  Even though the Inspector says that he is new to Brumley, he appears to know a lot about the other characters and the area and a lot more than he could simply have gained from Eva Smiths diary. The Inspector creates a lot of suspense by keeping certain characters waiting and not explaining to them that he intends to interview each of them separately, i.e. Gerald and Eric who are excluded from seeing the photograph, and suggesting that there might be reasons why they should not see the photograph and stopping Eric from going to bed as  Inspector: It might be less trouble. If you turn in, you might have to turn out again soon  He then doesnt go on to explain why he might want to talk to Eric later but carries on with his investigation creating tension and curiosity. Later in the beginning of Act 2. though Mr Birling becomes angry that the Inspector would not let Eric go to bed and asks him to bring Erics interview forward and the Inspector tells him that Eric must wait his turn. Any normal investigation might have brought Erics interview forward to save time in the long run and to let the child go to bed, but not the Inspector. The Inspector even requests that Gerald stay as he is marrying Sheila yet does not explain why, this increases tension and makes the audience think that Sheila has done something that Gerald should know about.  Inspector: I see. Mr Croft is going to marry Miss Sheila Birling?  Gerald: (smiling) I hope so.  Inspector: (gravely) Then Id prefer you to stay  Gerald: (surprised) oh- all right.  In the beginning when the Inspector first arrives he confirms that Mr Birling is not the only person he has come to interview prompts the other characters to become worried and anxious. Birling: You didnt just come here to see me, then?  Inspector: No.  The other four exchange bewildered and perturbed glances.  At the end of Act 2. Eric leaves the house with out the Inspectors permission and the inspector insists that Eric is needed and if hes not back soon hell have to go and find him the stage directions tell us that at this, Birling and Mrs Birling exchange bewildered and rather frightened glances. By not explaining why Eric is so badly needed there he increases the tension and creates and worried atmosphere between the other characters. The Inspectors role in this play is one of a moral messenger. He is Priestleys mouth piece to speak to the audience and convince them to change for the better and not revert to the old ways. Although Eric is the only character to commit an actually criminal offence it is the other characters, who it could be said have committed the 7 deadly sins (Mrs Birling, pride, Mr Birling, greed, Sheila, envy) who the Inspector is more interested in. He focuses on moral wrongs rather than legally wrong crimes and refers to responsibility and guilt sharing rather than law-breaking and prosecution. He doesnt even take notes or make an arrangement to see Eric again, who has committed a crime. However each character is punished in an appropriate way. Birling fears for his familys reputation at the inquest; Sheila feels shame for her selfishness; Gerald has his affair revealed in front of Sheila; Mrs Birling has her illusions about her children and the respectability of her family shattered by Eric and Eric is revealed before his short sighted parents as a spoilt and inadequate young man. In each case the punishment is a consequence of their own behaviour it is not the Inspector himself that brigs about their punishment. The Inspectors main concern is to hear them confess and except at least some of the responsibility for the girls death. Inspector: (taking charge, masterfully) Stop! And be quiet for a moment and listen to me. I dont need to know anymore. Neither do you. This girl killed herself- and died a horrible death. But each of you helped to kill her. Remember that. Never forget it. (he looks from one to the other of them carefully). But then I dont think you ever will. Remember what you did, Mrs Birling. You turned her away when she most needed your help. You refused her even the pitiable little bit of organized charity you had in your power to grant her. Inspector: Just used for the end of a stupid drunken evening, as if she was an animal, a thing, not a person. No, you wont forget. (He looks at Sheila) You helped-but didnt start it. (Rather savagely to Birling)You started it. She wanted twenty-five shillings a week instead of twenty-two and sixpence. You made her pay a heavy price for that. And shell make you pay an even heavier price still. No, I dont think any of you will forget. Nor that young man Croft, though he at least had some affection for her and made her happy for a time. Well Eva Smiths gone. You cant do her anymore harm. And you cant do her any good now either. You cant even say Im sorry Eva Smith. But just remember this. One Eva Smiths has gone- but there are millions and millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths still left with us, with their lives, their hopes and fears, their suffering and chance of happiness, all intertwined with our lives, and what we think and say and do. After delivering his moral message and trying to get the characters to change , the Inspector leaves, with no mention of returning or of bringing any criminal charges against Eric who has broken the law. But in fact if it is the Inspectors job to make the characters reframe from their selfish and morally wrong views then he has failed in this job as maybe only two of the characters, Sheila and Eric, who begin to change their attitudes, were as Mr Mrs Birling and Gerald quickly lapse back into their old attitudes and ways.  The Inspector abrupt departure, like his sudden arrival leaves the characters feeling shocked and stunned at what has just happened and in a n almost dream like state, wondering if it was real. This is probably why some (not all) of the characters are so quick to jump at the idea that it was all a trick and the Inspector was not an inspector. Through-out the play the Inspector adds to the tension and atmosphere. His arrival just as Mr Birling has made his (morally wrong) opinions known; this right from the start of the play supplies the audience with a dramatic irony that focuses their interests on the play and the characters. Even the atmosphere changes when the Inspector arrives, the light-hearted, happy diner party atmosphere disappears and is replaced with a harsh, truthful atmosphere. His looks and manner towards the other characters, creates tension as he isnt afraid to contradict or be rude to them even though they are his social superiors. He is or need not be a small man but however creates an impression of massiveness and of purposefulness; this comes across in the whole atmosphere he creates. He uses many tactics such as the photograph and graphically detailed descriptions to shock both the audiences and the characters. By shocking the audience he can best get across his moral warning and by shocking the other characters he can best get them to open up to him and admit their wrongs. The Inspectors overall approach to the investigation is totally irregular, which creates dramatic interest and in some points emotional conflicts which create tension and keep the audiences attention. But even after he has left, he is still creating interest and tension as the characters try to decide whether or not he was a real inspector and in fact whether or not he was actually real. A further way in which Priestley helps us to understand the Inspectors role in the play is through the Inspectors own speech. When he first arrives at the Birlings house and throughout the rest of the play, Inspector Goole keeps referring to and describing Eva Smiths death in a distasteful manner, swallowed a lot of strong disinfectant, she was in great agony her position now is that she lies with a burnt-out inside on a slab. I think this is to create an atmosphere of guilt for the Birlings in the hope that they might seriously consider what part they could have played in this tragedy.  rately steps over the normal boundaries that would appear in a criminal inquiry. The Inspector has the ingenious ability to act as a catalyst in the play extracting information from people by only saying a few words. Not as Eva Smith? As what then? She talked about herself? Did she drink much? What happened? The Inspector judges them but he offers neither punishment nor forgiveness to them. The implication is they must judge themselves. Hes giving us the rope so that well hang ourselves. Sheila says. The Inspector shows the Birlings for whom they really are, he reveals them to each other.   Eric? Oh Im afraid he may have had rather too much to drink tonight. We have a little celebration here -  Isnt he used too drinking? No off course not. Hes only a boy. We really must stop these silly pretences. This isnt the time to pretend that Eric isnt used to the drink. The Birlings are deeply affected by the Inspectors investigation yet the younger generation are more affected than the older. You seemed to have made a great impression on the child Inspector. Sheila and Eric realize where they have gone wrong and will be better people because of him. I know Im to blame -and Im desperately sorry Yet Mr and Mrs Birling seem to think that the girl,s death had nothing to do with them. Theres every excuse for what both your mother and I did-it turned out unfortunately, thats all As Sheila and Eric become more mature and face their responsibilities they begin to turn against their parents Thats just what I feel, Eric and its what they (Mr and Mrs Birling) dont seem to understand. In the beginning of the play Sheila referred to Mrs Birling as mummy and towards the end, her language becomes more formal and she calls her Mother Mirroring the fact that she has matured as she accepts her responsibilities in the death of Eva Smith. The Inspector is an eerie and supernatural character. He seems to be omniscient (all knowing.) He knows all about Eva Smiths past life and about what the Birlings have done and never seems surprised by what he hears. He knows of course he knows and I hate to think how much he knows that we dont know yet. Are you sure you dont know Priestly purposely does not use a question mark in this quote to show that the Inspector already knows the answer. The Inspector tries to account for his knowledge through items found in Eva Smiths room a diary and some letters. I had an idea it might be from something the girl herself wrote She kept a rough sort of diary. And she said there that she had to go awayShe felt thered never be anything as good again for her. The inspectors method of speech is so contradictory to the hyperbole spoken so confidently by Mr. Birling that he feels threatened by the inspectors ability to undermine his authority, Could I have a drink first, No, Yes, Alright go then.  J.B Priestley was well known for his ability to incorporate time in his plays. An Inspector Calls creates a real and believable sense of safety for the audience and collapses that gradually as the inspector develops. Throughout his life Priestley was interested in the theories of Jung and Ouspensky; this would tell us that he believed a policeman in our dreams usually signifies our conscience. The inspector has an aura of mystery that allows him to have a sharp penetrating quality gained by his inner knowledge. As the play develops the audience begin to feel that it is a slight coincidence the whole family being caught up in one girl. At the end they find out that the inspector was a fake but what it showed was that their individual actions were wrong and their actions and attitudes hurt people. In the end, like at the start of the play priestly highlights the Birlings attitudes. He moves the play into a new direction because we now know that the whole play was about showing the Birlings that their actions hurt people and their attitudes are also wrong. Also the ending showed the audience what would happen if your actions were selfish and were just about yourself. I was a warning that if you acted like the birlings bad things would happen to other people. The inspector is a dramatic device  The inspector interests the audience by being mysterious; he carries an air of authority about him.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Private Schools Capital Campaigns

Private Schools Capital Campaigns Many schools want to keep their tuitions as low as possible to attract the most diverse student and parent body possible, so raising their tuition costs is not always an option.  Private schools do not cover all of their operating expenses from tuition payments; in fact, at many schools, tuition payments alone only cover about 60-80% of operating expenses, and therefore schools must also use  fundraising efforts  to cover their daily expenses. But what about special needs? Schools also need to raise money for future expenses, and to increase their endowments. Private schools typically have an Annual Fund, which is a set amount of money that the school raises each year to cover the costs of educating their students that are not met by tuition and fees. But what happens when theres an extenuating need for renovation of facilities or purchase of expensive equipment? Those needs are typically met by what is called a Capital Campaign, a fundraising effort designed to cover the massive expense of renovating their current buildings, constructing new buildings, greatly enhancing financial aid budgets and adding to their endowments. But what makes a Capital Campaign successful? Lets look at what one school did to lead one of the most successful Capital Campaigns in private schools. The Westminster Schools’ Capital Campaign The Westminster Schools, a co-ed Christian school in Atlanta, Georgia, for students in pre-first through twelfth grade, led one of the most successful private school capital campaigns in recent years. Westminster is one of only a few private schools that have managed to raise over $100 million as part of a capital campaign; the school has the largest endowment of any non-boarding school in the nation. Westminster Schools enrolls over 1,800 students on its 180-acre campus. About 26% of the students represent people of color, and 15% of students receive need-based financial aid. The school was founded in 1951 as a reorganization of the North Avenue Presbyterian School, a girls’ school. In 1953, the Washington Seminary, a girls’ school founded in 1878 that was the alma mater of Gone with the Wind author Margaret Mitchell, also merged with Westminster. Westminster Schools has long been a pioneer in Southeastern private schools, as it hosted a pilot program for advanced s tudies that eventually became Advanced Placement or AP coursework offered by the College Board, and it was also one of the first schools in the South to integrate in the 1960s. According to its press release, Westminster Schools launched a capital campaign in October of 2006 and completed it in January of 2011, having raised $101.4 million in the midst of a recession. The â€Å"Teaching for Tomorrow† campaign was an effort to secure the best teachers for the school in the years to come. More than 8,300 donors contributed to the capital campaign, among them current and past parents, alumni/ae, grandparents, friends, and local and national foundations. The President of the school, Bill Clarkson, credited the school’s focus on teaching with its success in raising funds. He believed that the campaign’s emphasis on excellence in teaching enabled the campaign to raise funds, even in difficult economic times. According to an article in the Atlanta Business Chronicle, $31.6 million from the Westminster Schools capital campaign will be dedicated to faculty hiring, $21.1 million to constructing a new junior high building, $8 million to continuing the school’s commitment to diversity, $2.3 million to promote global awareness, $10 million for community service programs, $18.8 million to foster annual giving, and $9.3 million in unrestricted endowment funding. The school’s current strategic plan calls for an increased focus on globalization, including teaching its students to thrive in an interconnected world; on technology, including teaching its students to understand how to deal with the increasing complexity of technology; and on educational research and conducting studies to determine whether teachers are using the most effective methods of instruction and whether the school’s current methods of assessment are truly helping students learn. As the school passes its 60th anniversary, the success of its capital campaign is helping it achieve its strategic goals. Article edited by  Stacy Jagodowski  -  stacyjago

Sunday, February 16, 2020

The Reason Why the Developing countries are not developing Essay

The Reason Why the Developing countries are not developing - Essay Example The question that puzzles the minds of many economists, politicians and the general population pertains to why the developing countries are not developing. This is due to the fact that they have remained underdeveloped for more than a century and very few show signs of becoming industrialized or developed in the near future. The objective of this paper is to explore why and what measures make a country be categorized as a developing country. It will also discuss why there is the lack of development in these countries. The development of a nation is usually measured with statistical indexes such as life expectancy, income per capita, gross domestic product (GDP), and literacy rate among others.2 A Human Development Indicator for the above statistics has been developed by the United Nations to measure the human development levels for countries where reliable data can be found. Based on these statistics, a country is categorized as developing when it has not yet achieved a considerable degree of industrialization relative to their population, and with low standards of living. These countries are also categorized as developing countries since they have low literacy levels, low income per capita, and short life expectancy. Why Developing Countries Are Still Not Developed Several reasons have been established as the leading factors contributing to underdevelopment in developing countries, first being lack of infrastructure. Most of these developing countries have not yet taken the initiative of investing enough to construct the infrastructure that boosts the efficiency of both capital inputs and labor.3 The main reason is that it is generally costly to install an infrastructure as it requires a large capital expenditure. However, since most of these countries are still poor, they are not in a position to invest much in the infrastructure. Infrastructure is important for the development of a nation. For example, hospitals are necessary to maintain the health of the wo rking population. Roads are also important to promote trade and attract investments in a country. Lack of good highways usually increases the cost of transport, thus hampering trade. Good housing as an infrastructure is also necessary to shelter the working population. Moreover, growth of urban areas is dependent on investment in infrastructure. However, all these infrastructural facilities being either unavailable or poor is what hamper development in developing countries; this is evident in countries such as Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Syria among others. Lack of skills has also been singled out as a factor contributing to underdevelopment in developing countries.4 Development of a country is highly dependent on the literacy level of the population and the ability to embrace the use of technology. This is what has made countries such as the United States, Britain, Germany, and France to become fully developed. China is also a new country that was a decade ago considered as a dev eloping country has embraced the use of technology. This has moved it from a developing country to an industrial one. However, most developing countries lack the skills and the proper education to enable its population to employ the use of techno